The Five Types of Writing Framework
The Five Types of Writing framework draws on the ever-growing body of research on the power of frequent writing, on how frequent quizzing promotes learning, on setting strategic writing goals, and on giving predictable feedback to students. It reflects a wide-ranging and thoughtful approach for both teaching writing and using writing.
Teachers can use the different types of writing strategically to ensure that students have frequent and varied opportunities to “think on paper” and make clear what is expected in each task. The Five Types of Writing framework also provides a grade-level team or an entire school with common language for describing writing tasks. That means a consistent approach not only for typical learners, but also for at-risk, special needs, ELL, and gifted students.
Type One: Capture Ideas
Type One Writing is a short, timed quickwrite that gets kids thinking and keeps them engaged. Type One Writing requires a minimum number of items or lines to increase productivity and allow for easy over-the-shoulder feedback.
Type Two Writing is a quickwrite that demonstrates understanding, builds critical thinking skills, and increases retention. Type Two Writing requires a clear, measurable content quota to increase accountability and streamline scoring and feedback.
Type Three: Edit for FCAs
Type Three Writing is a more carefully-composed, one-draft piece of writing that is typically submitted for a grade. Up to three Focus Correction Areas (FCAs) set clear and specific standards for the content, organization, style, and/or mechanics of the writing. For students, the FCAs set the writing focus and provide a framework for revision and editing. For teachers, the FCAs drive instruction and provide criteria for grading and feedback.
Peer Edit for FCAs
Type Four Writing builds on Type Three Writing by adding a carefully-structured peer-editing component and a second draft, keeping attention on the FCAs, but taking students further through the writing process.
Type Five: Publish
Type Five Writing is reserved for written work that undergoes multiple drafts and revisions to meet the highest standards of writing for the grade level. Most Type Fives begin as Type Threes or Fours or a series of Types Threes or Fours.